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Gold Recycling

In tandem with gold supply falling 2% in 2014, gold recycling levels have also decreased to their lowest levels in 7 years. (Highest levels seen between 2009 and 2012). In 2013, gold recycling fell 11%.

What this means? According to World Gold Council: Gold Demand Trends Report 2014, gold recycling will remain low and will likely continue to decrease because of recent surges in gold demand in China and India. In other words, because of gold recycling contributes a significant percentage of gold supply, with the increase in demand flushing out gold supply, channels toward gold recycling are tightening. This is an interesting observation mainly because in a later report by World Gold Council drivers of recycled gold supply were its ability to a) increase over time, b) economic crisis, and c) changes in gold prices. While these are undoubtedly true, we are also seeing how gold demand is stemming some drivers (a & b), and reinforced by others (c).

Nonetheless, gold recycling remains to be an important contributor to the overall supply of gold, and a fascinating topic to those analyzing the gold market. Of the 4278.2 tonnes of gold supplied in 2014, gold recycling made up 26% at 1172.7 tonnes. This number is a a lot higher than most people realize, and although gold mining still supplies most of the world’s gold, recycling helps balance the gold market by alleviating some of the pressure off of the mining sector to supply gold demand, which was 3923.7 tonnes in 2014. In addition, one has to consider that, the environmental (as well as production) costs are far, far smaller than gold mining. In an article on Bullionstreet.com, they cite that environmental groups who focus on the environmental degradation of gold mining say to mine an 18k ring leaves behind 20 tons of ore and rock waste.

Countries with high demand vs. their recycling (2012)

India: Demand vs Recycle: 864.2 tonnes vs 113 tonnes

China: Demand vs Recycle: 817.5 tonnes vs 120 tonnes

United States: Demand vs Recycle: 161.8 tonnes vs 129 tonnes

Italy: Demand vs Recycle: 23.5 tonnes vs 123 tonnes

The four countries listed are the top 4 countries leading in gold recycling, however, the demand in China and India far exceeds their recycled supply, thus relying on gold mining and imports from other countries. Together, China and India make up over 40% of the world’s demand, yet they contribute roughly 20% of the world’s recycled supply. In other words, to meet the current demand for gold, the world still heavily relies on gold mining, while, at the same time, gold recycling wanes because demand implies “buying”, thus people aren’t selling to recycling companies. This creates an issue for recycled supply because if people aren’t selling gold to be recycled, then the recycling supply cannot keep up with growing demand. We see this most starkly in 2014 when prices were low, encouraging buying (increase in demand) and discouraging selling (decrease in recycled supply).

 

As much as there is an environmental upside to gold recycling, it is firmly dependent on the price of gold, and global supply and demand. Another factor which affects the recycling supply is the duration of which gold is held, especially jewelry. Disregarding intrinsic value and its relationship with the gold prices, sentimental value and religious significance keeps gold off the trading table. Considering that 90% of recycled gold is high value gold, according to World Gold Council’s The Ups and Downs of Gold Recycling article posted earlier this year, the time it takes to sell gold jewelry and reluctance on the part of the seller certainly does not stave off growing demand. Recycling supply is forced into a waiting game with its only incentive to offer are gold prices, which, if they are low, hardly is enough incentive for sellers.

Nonetheless, there are opportunities for recycling gold in industrial supply materials, such as electronics, making up 10% of supply. This is low compared to high value gold, but there is room to grow and has, in fact, doubled in the last ten years. While it has been known that electronics contain precious metals, the belief is that it is difficult and expensive to extract them for recycling. Between 15 and 20% of precious metals are recycled from electronics, the rest are thrown out. However, technology is developing to make extraction simpler and cost-effective, as well as advertised appropriately to encourage people to recycle their electronics more so in our electronic/mobile heavy society. In 2012, 400,000 tonnes of industrial waste was available for recycling, and is expected to grow to 2,000,000 tonnes by 2025. When we think that gold recycling is currently capturing 15-20%, that is a lot of recycled gold to potentially miss out on.

Overall, for gold recycling companies, whether it is for high value gold or industrial gold, there are pressures as well as opportunities. Low gold prices coupled with high gold demand in the East is diverting the attention of producers and sellers away from recycled gold which continues to give mined gold an important place in the supply side of the market. On the other hand, industrial waste is an avenue that gold recyclers can capitalize on as confidence grows and extraction methods develop.

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Diamond Jewelry Cleaning Tips

Your diamonds and jewelry are precious to you, both intrinsically and sentimentally. Caring and maintaining them should be as important as the care and maintenance you put into anything else you value and cherish, like a car or home, yet it’s a lot simpler and inexpensive.

The first step to taking care of your diamonds and jewelry is to be aware when you are wearing them. They can be very fragile, especially with more intricate pieces, and over time they will go through wear and damage, but you can increase their longevity by being mindful of how everyday exposure could harm them. It’s as common as making sure they don’t receive heavy impact from slamming your hand with a diamond ring on, tossing your jewelry on the table, (accidently) tugging at your necklaces and bracelets, or even keeping your jewelry in your pocket or purse with your keys and other larger objects. If you’re doing sports or heavy activity, it’s best to take them off (it’s also a safety precaution!). In all situations, you risk scratching and breaking the diamond and metal. Gold, silver and platinum are very soft and can easily be damaged. Diamonds are much harder to make a dent, but one perfect blow can make a crack, and once there is a crack the diamond is vulnerable to shattering. Other exposures include chemicals from household cleaning or gardening supplies and the chlorine in swimming pools. In most cases, the diamond can withstand these, but gold and silver are prone to stain which will weaken the integrity of the metal. On small chain necklaces, clasps and the prongs that hold the diamond, they can soften and bend in which you risk losing them when they fall out.

Being aware of your diamonds and jewelry isn’t just to protect from damage, but also to reduce the risk of losing them. This is the most heartbreaking thing that could happen, but there are a few tips to keep in mind: 1. Know where you put them (Is it in your jewelry box? If you take it off, is it in a secure place?). 2. Make sure there are no loose parts and that it fits properly. Rings that are too loose on the finger can slip off, and clasps and prongs that aren’t attached and fitted properly could result in your necklace slipping right off your neck or your diamond falling out. 3. Take your jewelry off when you wash your hands, take a shower, or use the swimming pool (Once they fall off, it can go straight down the drain).

The next step is proper storage. If you keep your jewelry in a jewelry box, make sure it’s not over-crowded. The best way to scratch the metal is against other metals, and the best way to damage diamonds are other diamonds. Make sure items aren’t piled up on top of each other (ideally they should have their own compartment or hook). Especially for chain necklaces, where they can be knotted up together, untangling them is the most common way that the chain links will stretch and break right off. In addition, the jewelry box should be padded, or if you don’t have a jewelry box, a cloth pouch.

The last step is the maintenance. Diamonds and jewelry can collect a lot of dirt and oils when they are worn, and keeping that luxurious look is the point of wearing them in the first place. Cleaning both the diamond and metal can be as simple as using warm, soapy (dish soap) water and a soft toothbrush, rinsing, and buffing with a soft cloth. Don’t use sharp or pointy objects to get into the nook and cranny’s, and make sure you completely dry the piece to prevent water stains. There are also a number of different at-home solutions that can be found online which use laundry detergent, aluminum foil, ammonia, or baking soda (you can find a whole list of common and uncommon ideas here). While these methods are proven to work, there are risks of damaging the gemstones that should not be exposed to these solutions. If you are doing it yourself, it’s best to stick to a simple soap and water solution. If you feel that you need cleaning beyond the at-home-do-it-yourself method, seek a professional that most jewelry stores provide. The same goes for repairs, resetting, and replatings (when the plate begins to wear down revealing the base metal).

We hope any of this advice is helpful and that you can keep the beauty of your jewelry for many more years!

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Canada Gold Opens new Edmonton Gold Buyers Location

For Immediate Release

November 19, 2014

(Edmonton, AB) – Canada Gold announced the launch, today of their newest location in the Ventures Building at 107 Ave. and 109 St. NW in Edmonton, AB. This opening marks the company’s 11th location in Canada, and its 2nd location in Alberta, joining their existing Calgary Gold office.

Canada Gold began as an alternative to traditional “mail-in” cash-for-gold companies and local pawn shops by offering a simple and transparent gold and silver refining service with on-the-spot payouts.

 Our objective has always been to offer the best payouts to our clients by leveraging our expertise in precious-metals analysis and up-to-the-minute market-based pricing.”

Gregory Neilson – Managing Director, Canada Gold

In Edmonton, the company has invested in state-of-the-art testing equipment and trained local precious-metals analysts, ensuring their clients are offered the most accurate payouts for all types of gold and silver.

For details about Edmonton Gold Buyers, visit http://www.edmontongold.ca

More information about Canada Gold can be found at http://www.canadagold.ca

About Canada Gold:

Founded in 2009, Canada Gold and its subsidiaries are among the leading precious-metals refining companies in Canada. With 11 offices serving BC, Alberta, Ontario and Nova Scotia, as well as a nationwide mail-in program, the company has grown to offer a broad range of gold and silver refining services to all Canadians.

SOURCE: Canada Gold

For further information:

To learn more, please contact:
Gregory Neilson
254 West Broadway,
Vancouver, BC
1-888-682-5832
gregory@canadagold.ca

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Stamps, Marks, and Hallmarks

When we go to buy something, we tend to look for the information. Whether we’re buying a new cellphone or computer or an appliance or a car, we want to see the specifications written somewhere so we know who made it, where it was made, and, most importantly, what’s in it.

At Canada Gold, a big part of our job is to identify the items that come through our stores. Of course, testing the item is the sure way to determine what it is (check out our blog post for how we test http://canadagold.ca/testing-gold/), but before we do that, we look for information, and the information comes in the form of stamps, marks, or hallmarks. Understanding what the stamps and marks mean is also a good way for sellers to identify what they have before they go to sell.

GOLD KARAT

Karat is the unit to measure the gold purity. How the karat system works is explained in another blog post (http://canadagold.ca/gold-karat/), but the chart below explains the percentage of gold for each different karat.

gold karat

Even though we test each item’s gold purity, a karat stamp helps us determine what we are testing for. If we see a 14k stamp on an item, we want to make sure it tests as 14k. Some items, usually old or hand-crafted jewelry, don’t have stamps. This doesn’t necessarily mean it isn’t real. It only means we have to be extra particular with our tests to make sure it’s real and how much gold is in it.

GOLD-PLATED or GOLD-FILLED

Gold-plated, gold-filled, and sometimes called, rolled-gold, is considered “fake” gold. Most of the time this is indicated on the item next to the karat stamp. Unfortunately this is not always the case. Stamps you would normally see are:

  • G.P. (gold-plated)
  • GEP (gold electro-plate)
  • G.F. (gold-filled)
  • R.G.P. (rolled gold-plate)

STERLING SILVER

Instead of a karat system to measure purity, silver has one, standardized purity called “Sterling” and then there is everything else. The reason I say this is because sterling silver is the only silver purity standard under the Code of Federal Regulations; everything else, whether it’s a purity higher or lower, cannot be considered (marked) as sterling silver. Sterling silver is 92.5% silver and 7.5% other alloys such as copper, nickel, or zinc. Items that are authentically sterling silver are stamped with:

  • STERLING
  • STER
  • 925

STERLING HALLMARKS

In addition to the three stamps above, hallmarks are used to indicate that an item is made with “standard silver” or sterling silver. Hallmarks are traditionally a British certifying system and are found on flatware and silverware, and each hallmark indicates: 1. Silver Standard Mark (indicating the silver content) 2. City Mark (the city it was manufactured in) 3. Duty Mark (the tax on the item that has been paid to the crown) 4. Date Letter (the year it was certified for silver content) 5. Maker’s Mark (who manufactured it) and 6. Import Marks (indicating it was in a foreign country).

sterling hallmarks

 

The one we’re interested in is the “Silver Standard Mark” reperesnted as the walking lion facing left, like the one above fourth from the left. It is called a lion passant and it was introduced in 1544 as a British sterling standard hallmark. In this post, we will not go through the other types of hallmarks, but stay tuned for an upcoming post on British Hallmarks.

SILVERPLATE HALLMARKS & STAMPS

There are also hallmarks to indicate whether flatware/silverware is plated, much like the plated stamps used for gold. Most flatware and silverware is not solid sterling; therefore, unless it is stamped with STERLING, STER or 925 or has the British lion passant, it is more than likely plated.

Commonly on plated flatware you will see the word “PLATE”, “PLATED”, “INLAID” or “SOLDERED” and then there are marks to identify the electro-plating used: “EPNS” (Electro Plated Nickel Silver), “EPBM” (Electro Plated Britannia Metal) “EP” (Electro Plated), “BP” (Britannia Plated), “EPCA” (Electro Plated Copper Alloy), “EPGS” (Electro Plated German Silver), “EP ON COPPER” (Electro Plated on Copper), “ESM” (Electro Plated Silver Mounts), “EPWM” (Electro Plated White Metal), “MP” (Magneto Plate).

There are also hallmarks to indicate the grade of silverplate. British electroplaters used a letter code for their plated wares. The best quality is”A1” or “AI“, lower level is”A”, next level is”B“, followed by level “C“, and the lowest level “D“. Normally, these are accompanied by other British hallmarks . Locating the silverplate grade hallmarks will eliminate the mystery of whether your flatware is plated or not.

EPNS

EVERYTHING ELSE (OTHER SILVERS & NON-SILVERS)

There are a lot of different “silvers” out there that aren’t sterling silver. Some of them are silver, just not sterling quality, while others are labeled as silver when they contain little or no silver at all.

Silver jewelry in Mexico is usually stamped with “MEX925”. Although the “925” suggests sterling quality, the items are not certified sterling; therefore, some pieces might be sterling silver and others could be less.

Other non-sterling silvers are stamped “800” which is 80% silver. Others are stamped “950” which is 95% silver. 950 silver would be considered sterling silver, but it is actually closer to an older silver standard called “Britannia Standard” silver which is 958 or 95.8% fine silver.

800

mex925

Then there are silvers that are labeled with the word silver, but are not actually silver. The most common examples of this are “German Silver” or “Alpacca” which are made with copper, nickel, and zinc (no silver whatsoever!).

Now and again, unusual stamps and marks come up that even we at Canada Gold have never seen before. Nonetheless, they share the same basic principle: information. For us and our sellers, what we look for first are the stamps and marks that indicate content (gold, silver, real or fake). Have a look through your items and if you come across anything you don’t recognize, leave us a comment and we will be more than welcome to do a little bit of investigating.

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CanadaGold Show – Mintage and the Morgan Silver Dollar with John Ellis

One of our first videos using Hangouts On Air with the help of John Ellis from SEOWise.co where we talk about rare coins – the Carson City Morgan Dollar – a topic covered in one of our earlier blog posts. We are trying to put together more videos like these where we get into the facscinating topics of gold, silver, jewelry, diamonds, coins, and other things. You can check our CanadaGold YouTube Channel: http://goo.gl/slSqOj

Leave questions and comments, or connect with us on Google+: google.com/+CanadagoldCanada

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What is Gold Karat?

The term “karat” has been used for centuries to as a unit of gold purity. This is not the same as “carat” which is a measurement of diamond weight. Normally we see 10k, 14k, or 18k jewelry, and naturally the higher you go the more pure the gold is. But what do they really mean?

Let’s start with 24k gold, which is pure, 100%, real mccoy gold. From now on, think of every piece of gold as having a purity that ranges between 0 and 24. So, if we have a 10k piece of gold, that means 10 parts of 24 is gold, and the other 14 are other alloys. This equates to 41.67% gold and 58.33% of other alloys. Here is a chart that lists out the other purities.

gold karat

What other alloys are being used to make up the rest of your jewelry? There are an array of alloys that are typically used, such as silver, copper, nickel, zinc, or palladium. Some metals are chosen over others to alter the color. For example, “rose” gold has parts of copper to give that reddish color, and white gold is mixed with a white metal like silver, nickel, or palladium. 

How to Test Gold Value

How We Test Your Gold

One of the questions you are probably asking yourself when you’re thinking of selling old gold jewelry is “how do you test it?” All precious-metal buyers will go through similar methods to determine the purity of your jewelry, coins, bullion, etc. When it comes to testing gold, it’s not hard science, just useful equipment and a good eye.

1. Magnet Test

After inspecting an item for signs of wear or for stamps and markings, the magnet test can help pull out real gold items or fake/plated items. Solid gold as well as silver and platinum are non-magnetic. If your jewelry is magnetic it either means it’s made with magnetic metals (iron, nickel, cobalt) or it is gold plated or filled. At our stores, we use a rare earth magnet which is powerful enough to pick up on anything magnetic. Note: Even if an item does not stick to a magnet, does not mean it’s real. Some gold-plated or gold-filled items can be non-magnetic; it depends on what kind of metal is used underneath the surface. This is just a preliminary stage of testing before moving onto more certain testing methods.

Pros:

      • Easy way to weed out obviously plated items

Cons:

      • Cannot 100% confirm if an item is real or fake, and should be accompanied by other tests

2. Testing Acids

51MrFKWy06L An Acid Test or a Scratch Test is what you’ll see each and every time you come to our store to have gold tested. It is not a 100% accurate test, but very close. The test is straight forward and the overall goal is to figure out the gold purity.

The first step is to scratch a sample of the metal onto a testing stone like the one below. One thing to look for is the color of the scratch mark. If you have yellow gold, the mark should be yellow as well. If you see the mark change color as you are scratching, like gray or copper-red, then the item is most-likely plated and the underlying metals are showing through.

 

The next step is to apply a drop of your testing acid and watch it for several seconds for the reaction. Typically acids come in 10k, 14k, 18k and 22k acid strengths. The testing acids are a combination of nitric and muriatric acid and are meant to dissolve the scratch mark.

For example, if you have an item that is stamped “10k”, the 10k acid should NOT dissolve the scratch mark. In other words, if the scratch mark holds up to the testing acid karat, then it is at least that purity.

Let’s say you have an item and there isn’t a karat stamp on it. Make your scratch mark and apply the 10k acid. If it holds up, move onto the 14k, and so on, until you begin to see the mark definitively dissolve. And let’s say the mark didn’t dissolve at 14k but did at 18k. That means the piece is at least 14k, but less than 18k. To determine where it falls between 14k and 18k, it depends on how quickly and substantially the mark faded. If it faded instantly, then it’s more on the 14k side. If 50% of the scratch mark fades after ten seconds, then it’s more in the middle at 16k.

0

Pros:

      • Great way to test unstamped pieces and small, fine items
      • Effective way to narrow down the purity
      • Fairly easy and affordable way to test gold
      • Can point out fake and plated items

Cons:

      • The higher the purity you go, the trickier it becomes to narrow down the purity
      • The acid tests the surface layer of an item, thus it doesn’t test the overall purity of an item and heavily plated items can past this test

3. Density Test

The density test is a great compliment to the acid test because it can determine the exact percentage of the gold purity, and it can indicate if an item is plated or filled. Watch the video below for a quick demonstration of a density machine testing a gold bar.

First, the demonstrator locked in the weight of the bar outside of water, and then the weight of it under water. The number that is calculated (19.3) is the specific gravity, which is what we look for in the density test. Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance. In the case in the video, 19.3 is the ratio of pure (100%) gold to water (the reference substance) which is 1. In other words, solid gold has a density ratio 19.3:1 to the density of water. In the video, the demonstrator changed the mode to “karat” in which “24” came up (24k=99.99%).

The drawback to this test is that it requires the item to be completely solid. Hallow parts where air is trapped or stones and gems will skew the calculation because their densities will be factored in. This is also why the density test is great for determining plated or filled items, because the density of the underlying metal will be calculated, resulting in a low density.

Pros:

      • Much more accurate than the acid test and can calculate purity down to the exact percentage
      • Because it calculates density, it measures the overall purity, not just the surface like the acid test

Cons:

      • The item must be solid (not hallow or gemstones) to get an accurate result
      • Small and fine items are harder to test

4.  X-Ray Machine

The X-Ray Test or XRF Spectrometers like the one advertised in the video above is much more high tech and advantageous. The main benefit is breaking down the different alloys and percentages. It works by measuring fluorescence of the item after being exposed to a small amount of x-ray radiation. To put it simply, the radiation will cause the elements (gold and silver) in the item to emit energy (or fluoresce), and the machine picks that up and figures out how much energy of each element was exposed.

This machine is not always necessary when you come in to have jewelry tested. This is often used as a last resort or to test questionable or unusual pieces that are not testing well in either the acid test or the density machine.

Pros:

      • Can read out the different alloys and their percentages of an item
      • The most accurate test

Cons:

      • XRF Spectrometers only test the surface level
      • Machines are very expensive

After reading this, it should be no surprise when you come in to have your items tested. Of course, each piece is different and we test accordingly. The next question you’re probably asking is “what’s it worth?” In that case, check out our tables of gold, silver, and platinum rates and prices – What Is My Gold Worth – or call one of our convenient locations. If you have diamonds, and would like to know a little more on how their values are assessed, check out our other blog post Grading Diamonds: What You Need to Know.

CarsonCityMorgans

A Closer Look at Coins: Mintage, Mint Marks, and the Carson City Morgan Dollar

In What Makes a Coin Valuable  we found out that there are several different things to consider when evaluating coins. There are the niddy-gritty details that numismatists look for such as condition, toning, and rare varieties, but most of the time, a coin is considered valuable because there aren’t a whole lot of them. In other words, we are considering their availability or mintage

 More supply, less value. Less supply, more value

Simple.

Most currency coins have a very high mintage because they are meant to supply an entire country with them. And because there are so many being made each year, often a country will have coins minted in different locations. To indicate the different mint facility, the coin will be stamped with a mint mark, and these variations can add value because they are unique to other coins of the same type.

1884 Morgan Dollar for Blog

A great example of this is the historic U.S. Morgan Silver Dollar (above). Minted between 1873 and 1904, and briefly in 1921, the Morgan Dollars were made to be silver trading dollars. After 1904, silver reserves ran low and the U.S. mint stopped making these coins. Many were taken out of circulation and melted for their silver under the 1918 Pittman Act, and others were kept in the U.S. Treasury’s vaults, thus never seeing the light of day. It’s relatively short life-span made it a sought after coin for collectors. However, one particular Morgan Dollar rises above the rest in terms of value and collectibility: The Carson City “CC” Morgan Silver Dollar.

carson_city_mint

Carson City Mint 1870-1893

Carson City, Nevada was one of five mint locations along side Phildelphia, San Francisco, New Orleans and Denver that was producing the coin. Carson City was built because of the Comstock Lode discovery in 1859 – the largest gold and silver mine in U.S. history. This alone made Carson City a major city during the frontier gold rush, a time of the Wild West, economic expansion, and the U.S. Civil War. Some of the mined gold and silver was sold to the Carson City Mint, and minting began in 1870.

Each mint facility had their own mint mark: No mark for Philadelphia, “S” for San Francisco, “O” for New Orleans, “CC” for Carson City, (and “D” for Denver for the 1921 Morgan Dollars).

CC close up for BlogCC Dollar GSA

What was so special about the Carson City Morgan Dollar? What made it stand above the rest? A lot of this story comes from its mintage, and what happened to the Carson City variety after the Morgan Dollars were taken out of circulation. There were only twelve minting years in Carson City (1878-1885, 1889-1892) and the mint facility was poorly equipped compared to the other mints, thus far fewer were made suitable for circulation. Once the Morgan Dollars were taken off circulation, many were melted down, while others were stored in the Treasury’s vaults. It wasn’t until the 1960s when the Treasury finally opened the vaults to collectors and started selling the Morgans for face value. The Carson City variety, however, were held back because of their particularly low mintage numbers. The General Services Administration was invited in the early 1970s to oversee the management and sale of the Carson City Morgan Dollars, and because of their mint-state, rarity, and historical significance, they became sought after and extremely valuable.

The Carson City Morgan Dollars range between $200 and $4000 depending on the year. Certain years have very low availabilities (or survivabilities) such as the 1879, 1889, 1892 and 1893. By all means, this is not the rarest of coins, but they do hold considerable value to collectors wishing to complete their set of Morgan Dollars. If you have a Morgan Dollar and want to see where it stands, check out Amazon’s Coin Store.

Making Synthetic Diamonds – High Pressure, High Temperature

Most coloured diamonds are made synthetically because the variables necessary to form a naturally coloured diamond are extremely rare, thus why they are the most expensive kind of diamonds.

The most common way diamonds are made synthetically is HPTC – High Pressure High Temperature

Because the video (1:51) has no dialogue, here is what’s happening:

1. Pure carbon and catalyst metals, pressed into a graphite, are put into a small cylinder, and then placed in a growth chamber
2. The growth chamber is placed into a BARS apparatus consisting of a steel outer anvil and a tungsten carbide inner anvil.
3. For 3-5 days, the growth chamber will undergo extreme temperatures and pressures (1400 °C and ~880,000 pounds per square inch).
4. Once the ideal conditions are reached, the graphite dissolves into a molten metal solution, and the carbon atoms slowly build upon a crystal structure.
5. Once the capsule finishes cooling, cracking open the growth chamber reveals a rough diamond ready to be cleaned and cut.

Different types of metals added to the growth chamber will change its color. Eg. Boron will result in a blue diamond.